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Princip činnosti přejezdových zařízení

Přejezdové zabezpečovací zařízení (dále jen přejezdové zařízení) je obecně systém, jehož hlavním úkolem je varovat účastníky provozu na pozemních komunikacích na blížící se vlak (resp. drážní kolejové vozidlo), čímž přispívá k bezpečnosti provozu na přejezdu. Může být ovládáno ručně obsluhujícím pracovníkem nebo automaticky jízdou vlaku. Další text se bude věnovat právě pouze přejezdovým zařízením ovládaným automaticky jízdou vlaku.

Je zřejmé, že následky nesprávné funkce mohou představovat v nejhorším možném případě ztráty na lidských životech, poškození životního prostředí a hmotné škody. Z toho důvodu je nutno na každé přejezdové zařízení pohlížet jako na systém tzv. bezpečnostně-kritický.

1 Základní požadavky

Na přejezdová zařízení jsou pak kladeny, kromě přísných bezpečnostních požadavků (systém nesmí svou funkcí ohrožovat bezpečnost na přejezdu, a to i při všech svých poruchách – při nich se musí chovat pokud možno více omezujícím způsobem), především následující požadavky: spustit výstrahu na přejezdu dostatečně včas před příjezdem vlaku a ukončit ji bezprostředně po jeho průjezdu. Dalším neméně důležitým požadavkem z hlediska bezpečnosti je předávat informaci o svém aktuálním stavu tak, aby bylo možné v případě poruchy, která by mohla ohrozit bezpečnost na přejezdu, zpravit strojvedoucího. Jeho zpravení je možné buď přímo pomocí speciálního světelného návěstidla tzv. přejezdníku (umísťuje se na zábrzdnou vzdálenost před přejezd), nebo zprostředkovaně dopravním zaměstnancem, který má na svém stanovišti umístěny indikace aktuálního stavu přejezdového zařízení.

Z požadavků pro spuštění a ukončení výstrahy vyplývají podmínky pro umístění ovládacích prvků přejezdu. Ty si nyní vysvětlíme prostřednictvím obr. 1.

Rozdělení trati v obvodu přejezdu na ovládací úseky.

Obr. 1 – Schéma přejezdového zařízení ovládaného automaticky jízdou vlaku

Zapínací body (ZB), pomocí nichž se spouští výstraha, musí být umístěny v určité vzdálenosti před přejezdem. Tato vzdálenost je dána výpočtem, který zjednodušeně vychází z následující úvahy. Doba jízdy vlaku pohybujícího se traťovou rychlostí od zapínacího bodu k přejezdu (tzv. přibližovací doba) musí nejdelšímu a nejpomalejšímu silničnímu vozidlu, jehož řidič již nestihl při spuštění výstrahy zastavit vozidlo před výstražníkem, umožnit bezpečně uvolnit prostor přejezdu (pozn. při výpočtu se obvykle uvažuje vozidlo dlouhé 22 m a jedoucí rychlostí 5 km.h-1). Během přibližovací doby je již na přejezdu výstraha spuštěna a vlak se pohybuje v přibližovacím úseku (PÚ), ale na přejezd smí přijet až po jejím uplynutí. Přibližovací doba tedy tvoří část doby uzavření přejezdu od spuštění výstrahy do příjezdu čela vlaku na přejezd. Naopak vypínací body (VB), pomocí nichž se výstraha ukončuje, musí být umístěny bezprostředně za přejezdem ve směru jízdy vlaku.

2 Prostředky pro detekci vlaku

Pro automatickou činnost přejezdového zařízení je nutno, aby zařízení dostávalo informace o aktuální poloze vlaku, který se nachází v jeho ovládacím obvodu. Z toho důvodu je trať v obvodu přejezdu rozdělena na několik úseků (obvykle dva nebo tři, viz obr. 1). Každý úsek je vybaven technickými prostředky, jejichž prostřednictvím vlak působí na přejezdové zařízení. Počet úseků je dán především možnostmi použitých prostředků pro detekci vlaku. Tyto prostředky mohou být buď liniové, nebo bodové.

2.1 Liniové prostředky

Hlavními představiteli liniových prostředků jsou tzv. kolejové obvody. Dva různé způsoby zapojení kolejových obvodů jsou na obr. 2. Jsou tvořeny kolejnicovými pásy a vlastní výstrojí kolejového obvodu (tj. napájecí a přijímačovou částí). Ke své činnosti využívají změny elektrických vlastností při propojení, jinak vzájemně odizolovaných, kolejnicových pásů elektricky vodivými nápravami vlaku. Pro vymezení prostoru působení vlaku bývají kolejnicové pásy příslušného kolejového úseku ohraničeny izolovanými styky (IS). Napájecí část kolejového obvodu obsahuje zdroj signálního proudu (Z), který je vysílán do kolejnicových pásů ve směru šipek na obr. 2. Signální proud prochází kolejnicovými pásy, nebo – při sériovém způsobu zapojení – kolejnicovými pásy a alespoň jednou nápravou vlaku do přijímačové části kolejového obvodu. Přítomnost či nepřítomnost signálního proudu je vyhodnocována přijímačem (P). Na výstupu přijímačové části je tedy informace o přítomnosti či nepřítomnosti vlaku v daném kolejovém úseku.

Znázornění zapojení paralelního a sériového kolejového obvodu.

Obr. 2 – Liniové technické prostředky pro detekci vlaku:
a) paralelní kolejový obvod, b) sériový kolejový obvod

Paralelní kolejový obvod (obr. 2, a)) pracuje na tzv. stálý proud – tzn., že při nepřítomnosti vlaku v kolejovém úseku (mezi izolovanými styky) stále protéká proud od zdroje k přijímači a zpět do zdroje. Stav takového kolejového obvodu je vyhodnocen jako volný. Pokud dojde ke zkratování, resp. šuntování kolejnicových pásů vlakem, pak přijímačem přestane protékat signální proud a tento stav je vyhodnocen jako obsazený. Stejně se kolejový obvod zachová i při jakékoli poruše, která by zamezila průchodu signálního proudu přijímačem. Proto se paralelní kolejový obvod používá v železniční zabezpečovací technice obecně pro zjišťování volnosti - nepřítomnosti vlaku v kolejovém úseku. U přejezdů představuje technický prostředek pro detekci vlaku v přibližovacích úsecích.

Sériový kolejový obvod (obr. 2, b)) pracuje na tzv. činný proud – tzn., že naopak jen při přítomnosti vlaku v kolejovém úseku protéká proud mezi zdrojem a přijímačem. Stav takového kolejového obvodu je vyhodnocen jako obsazený. Pokud vlak opustí prostor kolejového úseku, přestane signální proudu protékat přijímačem a obvod je vyhodnocen jako volný. Stejně se kolejový obvod zachová i při jakékoli poruše, která by zamezila průchodu signálního proudu přijímačem. Proto se sériový kolejový obvod používá v železniční zabezpečovací technice obecně pro zjišťování obsazenosti - přítomnosti vlaku v kolejovém úseku. U přejezdů představuje technický prostředek pro detekci průjezdu vlaku v anulačním úseku.

Pokud se tedy jako prostředky pro detekci vlaku použijí kolejové obvody, musí být trať v obvodu přejezdu rozdělena vždy na tři úseky (viz obr. 1 – naznačeno čerchovaně). Z každé strany přejezdu je jeden přibližovací úsek vybavený paralelním kolejovým obvodem pro bezpečnou detekci nepřítomnosti vlaku – jeho přítomností (vstupem) se spouští na přejezdu výstraha. V prostoru přejezdu je úsek anulační vybavený krátkým sériovým kolejovým obvodem pro bezpečnou detekci přítomnosti vlaku – jeho průjezdem se výstraha ukončuje (anuluje).

2.2 Bodové prostředky

Představiteli bodových prostředků jsou především tzv. počítače náprav. Počítač náprav je na obr. 3 a skládá se ze snímačů náprav s vysílači a vlastního počítače. Kolejový úsek je z obou stran ohraničen snímači náprav (SN). Ty pracují na elektromagnetickém principu a využívají změny magnetických vlastností prostředí nad snímačem při průjezdu magneticky vodivého kola vlaku. Prostřednictvím vysílačů (V) snímače podávají informaci o tom, kolik náprav nad diskrétním místem – počítacím bodem projelo, příp. jakým směrem. Tyto informace jsou dále vyhodnocovány počítačem náprav (PN), který vede evidenci o aktuálním počtu náprav v kontrolovaném úseku – vstupující nápravy přičítá, vystupující odečítá. Na základě toho rozhoduje o přítomnosti či nepřítomnosti vlaku v daném kolejovém úseku.

Znázornění zapojení počítače náprav.

Obr. 3 – Bodové technické prostředky pro detekci vlaku: počítač náprav

Pokud se pro detekci vlaku použijí počítače náprav je možné realizovat zapojení jak dvojúsekové, tak trojúsekové. U nás se v současnosti přednostně používá zapojení dvojúsekové (viz obr. 1 – naznačeno čárkovaně). Trať je v takovém případě rozdělena pouze na dva přibližovací úseky, které se v prostoru přejezdu vzájemně překrývají. Průjezdem první nápravy vlaku počítacím bodem v místě zapínacího bodu (např. ZB 1 na obr. 1) se výstraha na přejezdu spouští. Následným průjezdem celého vlaku (tj. všech jeho náprav) počítacím bodem v místě vypínacího bodu (VB 1 na obr. 1) se výstraha ukončuje.

3 Činnost přejezdového zařízení

Informace o aktuální poloze vlaku získané z technických prostředků na trati jsou zpracovány a vyhodnoceny přejezdovým zařízením. To pracuje jako sekvenční logický automat a na základě těchto informací na přejezdu spouští a ukončuje výstrahu. Činnost trojúsekového zapojení z obr. 1 popisuje následující tabulka. Obdobně pracuje také zapojení dvojúsekové, které je opět na obr. 1 a u kterého se však nezřizuje anulační úsek (AÚ). Průjezd vlaku u tohoto zapojení je zjišťován ovlivněním „výstupního“ bodového prostředku přibližovacího úseku, který je zde ale umístěn až za přejezdem.

Stav zařízení Signalizace
Volný Volný Volný Pohotovostní Pozitivní
Obsazený Volný Volný Výstražný Výstražný
Obsazený Obsazený Volný Výstražný Výstražný
Obsazený Obsazený Obsazený Výstražný Výstražný
Volný Obsazený Obsazený Výstražný Výstražný
Volný Volný Obsazený Anulační Varovný*)
Volný Volný Volný Pohotovostní Pozitivní

Tab. 1 - Stavy přejezdového zařízení v závislosti na stavech jeho ovládacích úseků
(pozn. v tabulce je zachyceno chování zařízení při jízdě vlaku zleva,
analogicky by se zařízení chovalo, pokud by se vlak blížil zprava)

V základním pohotovostním stavu se přejezdové zařízení nachází pouze v případě, když jsou všechny jeho úseky volné. Jen po tu dobu může být uživatelům pozemní komunikace návěstěna přerušovaným bílým světlem pozitivní signalizace. Pokud dojde k obsazení některého z přibližovacích úseků vlakem, přejde zařízení do stavu výstrahy. Výstraha je uživatelům návěstěna dvěma střídavě přerušovanými červenými světly, popřípadě doplněnými zvukem houkačky nebo polohou závorových břeven. Po průjezdu vlaku přejezdem dochází k ukončení výstrahy, a to i přesto, že jeden z přibližovacích úseků je stále obsazený vlakem - přesněji tedy říkáme, že výstraha je anulována a zařízení se nachází v anulačním stavu. V tomto stavu je na přejezdu zhasnutým výstražníkem návěstěn varovný signál*), při kterém víme, že v obvodu přejezdu se nachází vlak, ale nevíme jakým směrem se skutečně pohybuje. Po uvolnění přibližovacího úseku se zařízení dostává opět do výchozího pohotovostního stavu.

Popsaným způsobem pracuje přejezdové zařízení na jednokolejném přejezdu. Pokud jde o dvou a vícekolejný přejezd, je v podstatě každá kolej zvlášť vybavena takovýmto zařízením a výsledný stav celého přejezdového zařízení odpovídá nejpovážlivějšímu stavu každého z nich. To znamená, že například pro spuštění výstrahy na přejezdu stačí povel i jen z jediného zařízení, který přijde po obsazení jakéhokoli přibližovacího úseku vlakem.

4 Bezpečnost při poruchách

Při poruchách přejezdového zařízení rozeznáváme dva stavy. Nouzový, při kterém není ohrožena bezpečnost dopravy na přejezdu (např. přepálení hlavního vlákna dvouvláknové žárovky červeného světla výstražníku), a poruchový, při kterém bezpečnost na přejezdu ohrožena je (např. přepálení obou vláken dvouvláknové žárovky červeného světla). Nouzový stav potom nevyžaduje žádné zvláštní dopravní opatření, protože zařízení je schopno bezpečnost na přejezdu zajistit samo. Ovšem při poruchovém stavu, při kterém je uživatelům pozemní komunikace návěstěn varovný signál, který v tomto okamžiku značí, že na přejezdu není zajištěno korektní spuštění výstrahy před blížícím se vlakem. Je zřejmé, že při tomto stavu zařízení musí být bezpečnost na přejezdu zajištěna způsobem jiným, náhradním, obvykle administrativně.

V této situaci je rozhodující, jakým způsobem, resp. komu, dává přejezdové zařízení informaci o svém aktuálním stavu. Vždy však strojvedoucí vlaku, který je zpraven o nesprávné činnosti přejezdového zařízení, musí jet s vlakem alespoň v určité vzdálenosti před přejezdem sníženou rychlostí (10 km.h-1) a dávat opakovaně slyšitelnou návěst „Pozor“. Tím by v kombinaci s varovným signálem zhasnutého výstražníku měla být bezpečnost provozu na přejezdu při poruchovém stavu zajištěna.

Autor: Jakub Marek

_________________

*) pozn. současná norma povoluje svícení pozitivního signálu i při anulačním stavu přejezdového zařízení, tedy v době, kdy byl dříve vyžadován signál varovný

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Pár dotazů

Zdravím. Nejprve bych rád pochválil tyto zajímavé stránky, které mě jako laika zaujaly. Chtěl bych se ale zeptat:

1) Na přejezdech na koridoru v Pardubicích je chování mírně odlišné od popsaného stavu. Bliká bílá, vše OK. Když se vlak přiblíží k přibližovacímu úseku, ale zřejmě do něj ještě nevjede, přestane blikat bílá a teprve až po nějaké době přejezd přejde do výstražného stavu. Tj. Když jako řidič auta jedu k přejezdu a vidím, že přestala blikat bílá, tak vím, že za chvíli pojede vlak. A mě by zajímalo, proč to tak je. Je to předpis? Doporučení? Nebo jen něčí iniciativa?

2) Mohu já jako laik získat pasport železničních přejezdů? Jde mi o seznam přejezdů sssr, vúž a vúd. Na pasport se tu v diskusi stále odkazuje, ale lze jej získat? Obrátil jsem se na sždc, ale bez reakce.

3) V jiných diskusích se píše o normě ČSN 34 2650, která mimo jiné určuje i podmínky pro to, aby přejezd směl být vybaven pozitivní signalizací. Protože tato norma není veřejně dostupná, resp. je nutné si ji koupit, nešlo by tyto podmínky třeba do nějakého článku "převyprávět"? Zřejmě se stává, že někde byl přejezd s pozitivou, přestal splňovat podmínky normy, tak byla bílá zaslepena... Jaké jsou ty podmínky?

4) Není problém najít fotky či videa výstražníků sssr, vúd a ažd, ale nenašel jsem žádnou fotku výstaržníku vúž 76. Přesto by mě zajímalo, jak vypadá, jestli ho znám nebo ne. Nevíte o nějaké fotce? Díky. LDavid

Zhasnutí bílé

Zdravím, přesně tohle s tou bílou mě zajímá také, chová se tak většina přejezdů AŽD 97 na koridoru. Moje domněnka je taková, že v místě kde by bylo podle vypočítaných údajů vhodné, aby začínal přibližovací úsek se nenachází žádný vhodný oddíl autobloku ke kterému by se spouštění výstrahy přidružilo, tak se vezme nejbližší vzdálenější oddíl a aby ta čekací doba u výstrahy nebyla tak dlouhá, tak se tam dá časovač, kterému se vypočítá jaká prodleva se má měřit od najetí do oddíl ke spuštění výstrahy, přičemž po tuto dobu přestane blikat pozitiva.

Budu velice rád, když někdo kdo to skutečně zná, tuto hypotézu vyvrátí, nebo potvrdí.

Jinak to ostatní také, jak vypadá VÚŽ taky nevím.

Pozitiva

U traťových přejezdů se standardně při uplatňování odložení výstrahy zhasíná pozitiva. Rozdíl je u přejezdů, které jsou ovládány ze SZZ, kde pozitiva při odkládání výstrahy nezhasíná.
Mezi hlavní podmínky pozitivy patří (nechce se mi vypisovat všechno):
- Volnost PÚ/VÚ, pokud není přejezd kryt návěstidlem s abs. významem návěsti "stůj" nebo návěstidlem platným pro posun nebo přejezdníkem s návěstí "otevřený přejezd". (Návěstidla minimálně 50/60 m od přejezdu)
- Výhybky/výkolejky jsou v odvratné poloze.
- Přejezd není nouzově otevřen, vypnut, nedává výstrahu nebo není zavedena výluka ovládacích prvků.
- Nově se má kontrolovat i závěr jízdní cesty, svícení povolujícího znaku nebo PN a svícení modré na ranžírkách, které kryjí přejezd.

P.S.: Přejezd typu AŽD 97 neexistuje.

co?????????????????

chcete říct,že neexistuje přejezd ažd 97,ale pouze výstražník tohoto typu???
nebo neexistuje výstražník ažd 97???

ondra

Výstražník

AŽD 97 je pouze výstražník. Zavedené přejezdy u SŽDC jsou typu VÚD. VÚŽ 76, AŽD 71, SSSR, PZZ-RE, PZZ-EA, PZZ-AC, ELEKSA 93, PZZ-K a PZS ARE.

Výstražník

Aha, takže podle výstražníku AŽD 97 se nedá poznat co za typ PZZ to je. A ty systémy které na kmitavý obvod používají elektroniku a ne relátka jsou které??
Když je tam výstražník AŽD 97 a je to staré PZZ, tak to se pozná podle blikání, že to bliká pomaleji a obě žárovky nesvítí stejně dlouho, ta elektrinika bliká tak nepřirozeně, rychle a pořád stejně.

Taky bych chtěl vědět jak je PZZ připojené na napájecí veřejnou síť a jestli je tam někde nějaký záložní akumulátorový zdroj.

VÚŽ

Dobrý den, Martine, jsem rád, že sem stále občas zavítáte. Pamatuji se z dřívějších komentářů, že máte nebo jste měl možnost nahlédnout do pasportu železničních přejezdů. Pokud to tak je, nemohl byte sem vypsat, kde se dá (nejlépe někde u Pardubic, ale není podmínkou) najít přejezd s výstražníkem VÚŽ-76 (prý jsou jen 4) a nějaký SSSR? Já vím jen o SSSR v Sobíňově, pokud ho již nezrušili.

Jak vlastně pasport vypadá? Je to počítačová databáze nebo papírová bichle?

Díky moc, LDavid

stupid question

a to by nešlo prohlásit 1 přejezd sssr a 1 vúd za technickou památku???,nejlépe tak,aby k němu měli přístup i lidé na invalidním vozíku,protože k sobíňovskému sovietovy se teda nevyškrábu ani na električáku. já bych totiž nechtěl,pane marek,aby tato zařízení zmizela ze světa a byla k vidění už jen v muzeích a ne v provozu.

ondra

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2017.3.21chenlixiang

Výstražník VÚŽ 76

Výstražník VÚŽ 76 asi neexistuje. Je to typ PZS, které se neovládá pomocí klasických liniových prvků, ale zapíná a vypíná bodovými prvky - kolejovými spínači - což není bezpečný způsob. Proto tyto přejezdy jsou vybaveny přejezdníky, které strojvedoucí informují o výstražném stavu, a nejsou vybaveny pozitivní signalizací. Jejich nespolehlivost je také důvodem, proč se moc nerozšířily. Takový přejezd je např. u obce Sosnová u České Lípy. Tento přejezd má normální výstražníky AŽD 71 se zaslepenou pozitivní signalizací.

VÚŽ-76

Já jsem se dozvěděl od firmy Starmon, že kdysi montovali VÚŽ-76 na přejezd v Bylanech. Dnes tam je bohužel výstražník AŽD-97, co tam bylo dřív, nevím. Myslel jsem, jestli výstražník VÚŽ-76 není třeba to na obrázku u následujícího článku:
http://www.zachranny-kruh.cz/ridici_meli_na_zeleznim_prejezdu_stesti.html

Ale nevím...

přesně...

nešla by sem do nějákého článku přepsat norma pro zvedání závor??
já jen, že se na koridoru se zvedne u ažd 97 se čtiřmi závorami po průjezdu vlaku všechno, ale na regionálkách je to půl a půl, proč ,když je to u zžd 71 vždycky půl a půl ať to na koridoru je nebo není??

díky, ondra

zvedání

Že se závory zvedají postupně je úprava pro šetření baterie, protože se tolik při zvedání nezatěžuje. ČSN tuto možnost připouští a současně požaduje, aby se v případě postupného chodu začala zvedat dříve závora za přejezdem než před přejezdem (v jednom jízdním pruhu).

LkW

Zapnutí signalizace

Zdravím, zajímalo by mě zda je přejezd odolný proti jinemému aktivování signalizace než vlakem. Pokud jsem správně pochopil tak aby byl úsek vyhodnocen jako obsazený, musí dojít k vodivému spojení obou kolejnic v izolovaném úseku nápravami. Co se stane v případě že někdo položí na trať železnou tyč, nebo prostě koleje spojí kusem drátu, a třeba ji ihned odejme. Pokud jsem správně pochopil tak automat vyhodonucuje úseky sekvenčně. čili pokud nastane případ obsazeno, volno, volno, a pak nikoliv obsazeno obsazeno volno, ale opět volno volno volno. Jak se automat zachová v této situaci? Nejsou proudy a napětí které tečou z vysílače do přijmače životu nebezpečné? Děkuji.

Jednostranné závory na přejezdech???

mohu se prosím zeptat, v jakých přípdech se při montáži přejezdového zabezpečovacího zařízení využívá varianty jednostranných závor u zařízení AŽD 97? Z jakého důvodu se nedávají v těchto případech závory naproti sobě, ale jak před přejezd, tk za přejezd vždy pouze na pravou stranu??? Kde se takovéto přejezdy všude nacházejí???
zatím vim pouze o dvou..

díky, váš Ondra

Poloviční závory

Celé závory (ať už formou jedné celé závory nebo dělených závor) se musí budovat pouze na tratích s rychlostí 120 km/h a vyšší. V ostatních případech, kdy jsou závory požadovány, se mohou použít poloviční závory. Ale záleží na dalších místních podmínkách, které se projeví v rozhodnutí o způsobu zabezpečení, které vydává DÚ.

P.S.: Co je to zařízení AŽD 97?

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Co mi v popisu chybělo

Vycházím ze své praxe na zař. AŽD 71. Pokud je to jinak (15 let jsem to nedělal) tak mne samozřejmě opravte.

K popisu seriového a paralelního kol. obvodu (Obr 2 liniové prostř.):

Paralelní KO kontroluje nejen obsazení (zkratování náprovou) ale např. i lom kolejnice. Tím proud neteče a přejezd se uvede do stavu výstrahy na předdefinovanou dobu a pak se uvolní bez pozitivní signalizace (laicky, stane se nechráněným resp. chráněným pouze křížem).

Seriový obvod neumožňuje odhalit lom, nemusí včak dojít k dojít ke zkratování (šunt) a tak nedojde k anulaci přejezdu. V takovém případě se přejezd uvolní až po opuštění vzdalovacího úseku, rovněž bez pozitivní bílé .

K ukončení výstrahy u závorových zař.:
Blikání červené (výstrahy) skončí, až když všechna břevna závor dojdou do krajní (horní) polohy. Před tímto okamžikem mohou být kdykoli znovu spuštěna bez varování, například vlakem po druhé koleji (výstraha stále bliká na přejezd se nesmí vjíždět). Pokud již zhasne výstraha. Pak musí další cyklus (vlak) spustit předzváněcí dobu. Může tedy teoreticky nastat i situace, kdy při stání u přejezdu se zvednou závory, ale nezhasne výstraha po dobu předzvánení a závory jdou poté opět dolů. Je to dáno tím, že závory dosáhly horní úvrať, zař. se uvedlo na okamžik do anulačního stavu, když byl téměř současně obsazen přibližovací úsek druhé koleje. Při sledování výstražníku se to pak může jevit jako nepřetržitá výstraha. Situace, kdy břevna jdou nahoru, pak se v půli cyklu začnou spouštět a následuje po dobu předzvánení čekání u zavřených závor je celkem běžná.

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Breaking Down New Air Jordan 'Bentley Ellis' Shoes

October is the month that simply keeps on giving for the "sneakerhead" community.

The month has already seen the release of the 10th edition of LeBron James' signature line of shoes and the unveiling of the KD V's, both of which came with a ton of fanfare.

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Nevertheless, there is no entity in basketball shoes greater than Jordan, and this October has been a special month for that brand as well, with the release of the retro Jordan IX Kilroy Pack.

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Inspired by His Airness' alter egos, the shoes have revived a marketing campaign made popular during Michael Jordan's first retirement. The collection started with its namesake, followed with the Fontay Montanas and continues with its third installment with the release of the Bentley Ellis shoes on Oct. 27.

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Ellis is a player for a fictional team called the Crawfish, which coincidentally had colors not too dissimilar to the Cleveland Cavaliers.

With huge expectations and a $160 price tag, the designers have a ton of pressure to deliver a strong product.

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How did they do? Here's a look at how the Bentley Ellis shoes grade out.

Though there is nothing outwardly remarkable or flashy about these kicks, the colorway is just so striking that it's impossible to avoid staring at these shoes.

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Adorned with the university gold and dark cayenne colors that make the Cavaliers' jerseys among the best in the NBA, this is just a winning combination.

It's also nice how the two most noticeable colors work well with the base white to provide a great contrast that isn't always there with white kicks.

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Sneakerheads looking to get a pair of eye-catching shoes without all the unnecessarily mismatched colors should jump on these.

Nothing short of an absolute win here, and it's done with class.

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Like all of the shoes in the Jordan IX Kilroy Pack, the design is nothing short of fantastic from top to bottom.

The colorway is what makes the Ellises the best of the bunch so far, as the gold accentuates the more standard colors and allows them to shine. Without the color change on the lining, heel and outsole, it's likely that we're staring at a rather drab pair of sneakers.

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Nonetheless, as with previous iterations, it's the commitment to the theme that makes these kicks truly stand out.

From the inner-tongue etching of the Crawfish name to the outer-tongue lettering that spells out Ellis' shoes, it's this attention to detail you can only get from the Jordan brand.

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For sneakerheads that love the marketing campaign, there will be no mistaking that you're wearing a pair of Bentley Ellis signature shoes.

With releases like this, that's about all you can ask for from the designers.

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While the previous two releases from the Kilroy Pack were only must-buys for the collectors, I can see even the casual consumer getting a great deal of pleasure out of these kicks.

They are designed to be worn on the court, but the shoe also lends itself well to everyday wear.

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If you're sitting around in need of a pair of kicks and have $160 just lying around, you hook me up with the cash and I'll give you a pair of my old shoes.

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LeBron James Vs. Michael Jordan: Charles Barkley Weighing In Favor Of LBJ

Since we’re on the cusp of another NBA season, it’s time for ridiculous comparisons between the league’s best today and the best to ever play the game.

Oh, what’s that you say? The comparisons of LeBron James and Michael Jordan are holding water? All it took was one title for James to finally appease the masses into accepting him as one of the greatest to ever play, and Charles Barkley is taking it one step further with another candid remark on the matter:

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Although Charles has usually been a critic of James and the Miami Heat, he’s quietly jumped the fence on the issue after witnessing LeBron and the incredible postseason he is coming off of. The fact that LeBron’s also the first person since Michael Jordan in 1992 to win league MVP, Finals MVP, an NBA championship and a gold medal in the same year aids the argument that weighs in the direction of James deserving the comparisons.

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LeBron James has spent his entire basketball playing career running head-first into the line of fire in the form of hundreds who have attempted to put a damper on his Hall-of-Fame caliber career.

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From his days of receiving brand new Hummer’s to receiving two pieces of NBA Finals hardware, the media has been right there behind his back, always serving as a source of pressure ready to make the next knee-jerk reaction that would draw in the ire of LeBron’s critics and loyalist’s.

The pressure arises not only from LeBron James reaching his personal expectations, but the expectations of what he could end up as.

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Because he was born and bred with freakish athleticism, those who observed James felt something they hadn’t felt since watching a future number three pick of the Chicago Bulls in 1984. The overwhelming amount of confidence, the surprisingly consistent jumper, and the uncanny ability to be just as good a distributor as he was a scorer caused LeBron’s status as the future face of the league to draw up comparisons to those in the past who have met high expectations and then surpassed them by a large margin.

It’s always in the best interest of those who analyze the game to talk up the possible ascension of a big-time player, thus why LeBron James has ended up being compared with Michael Jordan since his first days in the NBA.

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There’s no doubting that MJ is the best to play the game and even though he and James don’t have similar games–it’s far more appropriate to compare the career and playing style of LeBron’s to that of Magic Johnson’s–they are compared because Michael is the greatest and LeBron just so happens to be good enough to possibly reach the heights that MJ has created a peak at.

That’s why there was so much talk of LeBron winning a ring. Because he didn’t have a ring, critics felt it necessary to use this to undermine James and why he didn’t deserve the talk of being compared to the greatest who ever played. There was no doubting that LeBron had a game capable of putting him near Jordan’s level; there was just too much doubt of LeBron’s leadership for analyst’s to properly compare a six-time NBA champion with someone who had lost their first two NBA Finals in embarrassing fashion.

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Now that he’s finally won a title–and in more than impressive fashion–LeBron can begin to revel in the talk of being compared to Jordan. Winning an NBA title is a representation of excellent teamwork, a solid framework on how to play the game, and having a leader who was capable of stepping up and leading his team on both ends of the floor in dire situations. Unlike in 2011 when it was Dwyane Wade attempting the saving, it was James in 2012 hitting critical shots on one end and limiting the league’s top scorer on the other.

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Winning that championship proved that LeBron wasn’t just unbelievably resilient, but had finally become the leader that so many observers were hoping he would become. He showed resolve in the face of obscurity on numerous occasions and was always the one leading the Heat. Every win and every loss, LeBron James was the one who was doing everything he could to will his team to victory, and it showcased the three-time MVP’s commitment to bettering himself in order to become the player he needed to be that was capable of winning a title.

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LeBron obtaining a better post game to make himself a better all-around player? That sure sounds like Michael Jordan developing a more consistent jumper prior to the second three-peat because he recognized that his athleticism was waning. Both players have keen understanding’s of what their body’s are capable of, and both did everything they could to make sure their body was constantly ready for every type of situation.

LeBron isn’t Michael and it’s doubtful that he ever will be, at least in the eyes of those who observe the game. Michael’s name is held in unrealistically high regard and it is a very sensitive subject to compare any player of any generation to Jordan. LeBron can go on to win eight titles, yet it’s a guarantee loyalist’s to Michael will take note of those first two NBA Finals losses and comparing it to Jordan, who never lost upon reaching the NBA Finals.

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For now, we can consider ourselves fortunate that we are living in an age where there is a player that can draw legitimate comparisons to Jordan without a public outrage. LeBron James has proven to all of us that he is far better than we ever thought he could be and that he’s ready for the comparisons; because there will be plenty of them coming over the next decade. As long as James stays healthy and keeps a quality team around him, he’s going to end up winning just as many league MVP’s, Finals MVP’s, and championships as Jordan.

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Now Carol Vorderman does Kim Kardashian in body-con bandage dress... and Parky approves!

She's always had a head for figures - and now Carol Vorderman seems keen to show off her own at every opportunity at the moment.

The former Countdown star has been seen out in a series of incredibly curve-hugging dresses over the past few days, including this latest silver Herve Leger Bandage creation - a style favoured by the similarly hourglass Kim Kardashian.

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The star, 49, was leaving BBC's Television Centre in London last night when she was snapped in the attention-grabbing outfit.

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Passerby Michael Parkinson was so taken with her look he even tried to waltz her into the Galaxy Book Awards, which took place last night.

The former chat show host gallanty kissed her hand after getting to grips with his shapely friend in in a big bear hug.

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Yesterday, Carol stepped out in an equally unforgiving Victoria Beckham frock that many stars half her age would baulk at wearing.

And at the Pride Of Britain Awards, which she presented on Monday night, she was wearing a revealing black bustier Suzanne Neville dress with Swarovski stones.

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At the Galaxy Book Awards meanwhile, Stephen Fry triumphed over tomes by Tony Blair and Lord Sugar to land the biography of the year titles.

He was honoured for his second volume of memoirs, The Fry Chronicles, at a ceremony attended by stars and figures from the publishing world.

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Literary veterans Terry Pratchett and Martin Amis were given awards for outstanding achievement in recognition of their contribution to the publishing industry.

Amis, famed for books such as Money and London Fields, said he was 'delighted' with the gong, adding: 'I take this is as a boost for the so-called comic novel. I say so-called, because in fact nearly all novels are comic novels.'

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Pratchett - the Discworld novelist who has been battling Alzheimer's - said of his win: 'I'm amazed. You find something that you like doing and do well and keep on doing it and suddenly they give you an award, when all I was really doing was having a lot of fun.'

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Political broadcaster Andrew Marr landed the non-fiction prize for The Making Of Modern Britain, beating fellow nominees including Lady Antonia Fraser and Bill Bryson.

Popular fiction book of the year went to David Nicholls' One Day, beating the likes of Jilly Cooper, while Hilary Mantel picked up the UK author of the year prize, seeing off competition from Maggie O'Farrell and Kate Atkinson.

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Yotam Ottolenghi outperformed Jamie Oliver, Nigella Lawson and Nigel Slater meanwhile to food and drink book prize for Plenty.

Best children's book was Zog by the celebrated creators of The Gruffalo, Julia Donaldson and Axel Scheffler. Their tale about an accident-prone dragon beat comedian David Walliams's book Mr Stink.

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American author Jonathan Franzen - who became a worldwide sensation for his book The Corrections - collected the International Author of the Year trophy for Freedom.

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Also on the red carpet were former Coronation Street star Hayley Tamaddon, Alan Davies and his wife Katie Maskell, and Strictly and Film 2010 presenter Claudia Winkleman.


Ken Griffey Jr. should address his retirement publicly

Plenty of talk these days about whether Mariners manager Don Wakamatsu is playing for his job night after night. And there should be, considering the overall feel his team is giving off about him. The Mariners are two more losses away from being double digits out of the AL West lead in a year in which they told fans to "Believe Big'' and made off-season moves -- trading for Cliff Lee and unloading Brandon Morrow for bullpen help -- that seemed to signal they were taking a shot at contending.

So, Wakamatsu would have been blamed in any event for the failure of his team to achieve expectations.

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But there is more to it than that. More and more, there are questions being raised about whether Wakamatsu is losing his grip on the clubhouse. Certainly, the comments by Ian Snell and Chone Figgins in recent days haven't helped.

But more than anything they've said, it's the non comments by Ken Griffey Jr. that are hurting Wakamatsu the most.

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It was a week ago today that Griffey abruptly retired on the team without so much as a word to Wakamatsu or general manager Jack Zduriencik. Some have tried to explain it away as Griffey being Griffey and not wanting to make a fuss, or distract his teammates.

Well, guess what? He's caused a fuss and created a major distraction.

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He knows this. They discovered the internet in Orlando a long time ago and it doesn't take a week to drive there from Seattle.

Griffey is well aware of what people have been saying and writing about him. His agent for years has been quick to monitor and attempt to diffuse any negative situation involving his client. Just last week, the agent, Brian Goldberg, speaking by phone from a cocktail party, let it be known to reporters that he had never actually said Griffey would be returning to the Mariners in an off-field job this year -- an impression that had been given hours earlier in an Associated Press report.

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But as of right now, following nearly a week of reports, including some by me, that Griffey left the team in a huff after he and Wakamatsu had stopped speaking to one another, there has been no attempt by said agent to set the record straight. Most importantly, not a word from Griffey.

And that's too bad, because his non-action is hanging his manager out to dry.

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Let's face it, all of this Wakamatsu-is-in-danger talk began right after Griffey left. The bad vibes in the clubhouse? As Buster Olney said on the radio yesterday, you can trace most of that back to Griffey.

Griffey wasn't the same after the whole SleepGate controversy. His playing time was drastically reduced soon after that, following some conversations that supposedly took place detailing what was about to happen, and he and Wakamatsu ceased talking in the days and weeks that followed.

And it doesn't take a rocket scientist to figure out that Wakamatsu's own problems in the clubhouse increased exponentially during this period. What were the exact origins of those problems? When exactly did they begin? Was it the day Griffey retired? The day SleepGate broke? I have no idea.

But Griffey is a main factor.

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And his continued silence, one week after retirement, is only fueling the speculation.

And frankly, what a shame. He's had a Hall of Fame career, but one that was destined to end in less glory that it began once he decided to return for one year too many. Not because of Wakamatsu. But because Griffey simply did not have it anymore. It's nice for his teammates to want a guy to be treated with respect, but let's get real here. The players already cost hitting coach Alan Cockrell his job. How many other jobs were going to be lost, in the front office and coaching staff, by the team continuing to trot out lineups that did not make a whole lot of practical sense?

Griffey was accorded all the respect he merited. He enjoyed a triumphant season in 2009 and was carried off the field to thunderous cheers from adoring fans. And when he did not take the obvious retirement cues last year, that his declining numbers were providing anyone who looked at them objectively, Griffey was still accorded the respect a player of his stature deserves.

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He was run out in the starting lineup day after day to give him a final shot at recovering his stroke, even as his OPS dwindled to the pitiful mid-.400s range. Just about any player with an OPS that low would have been benched, demoted or cut weeks earlier. As media criticism towards Wakamatsu and the front office grew, nobody said a bad word about Griffey. Even though, in major league baseball, it's the players who have to perform. Wakamatsu, Jack Zduriencik and everyone associated with the Mariners continued to sing Griffey's public praises even as his lineup presence dragged them down.

But there is a limit to what any team can take. Even from a Hall of Famer. There is no rule that says a Hall of Famer gets to keep having uninterrupted "Farewell Tours'' indefinitely. Griffey's one Mulligan of a Farewell Tour came last year, when he posted the third-worst OPS by any regular designated hitter in the league.

He was shown respect and given the chance to leave gracefully.

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But this year, he took a risk and came back. And sometimes, risks don't pan out.

It is unreasonable for Griffey to have expected the Mariners to keep on playing him when one coach had already been fired. And when the logical decision was finally made to bench him, nobody held a press conference to announce it. Nobody tried to humiliate him.

Griffey could no longer reasonably expect to get anything but a handful of DH starts per month by that point. And if that wasn't going to be enough to keep his hitting skills sharp -- and for most players, it wouldn't be -- then it was up to him to make the tough call and retire. Yes, I know this is not an easy decision for most players, especially the all-time greats. But sometimes, you have to make the tough calls. Not force others to make that call for you.

Now, given his silence in the week since, we can only assume that Griffey did leave in a huff.

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Maybe there is more to this than is being made public? That's always a possibility. Perhaps Griffey is angry at more than simply not playing and the fact that he and Wakamatsu had stopped speaking to each other. Last I checked, though, talking and not talking to somebody is a two-way street.

Whatever the problem was, it's a shame that Griffey has let it get to this point by staying silent and letting the speculation swirl.

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Because not only is it putting a cloud over the end of a career that millions of his fans want to properly celebrate, but it's also putting the career of his former manager at risk. A manager that Griffey shared a close relationship with during much of their time together. The clubhouse cleanup from 2008 was engineered by Griffey to a large extent, but also with help from others, like Mike Sweeney, and by Wakamatsu and his coaching staff.

Wakamatsu didn't suddenly go from being a manager players respected last season to being a different guy this year. But he's having a tough time now and Griffey is at the epicenter of it.

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And now, with Wakamatsu's team teetering on the brink, Griffey is the one guy who can make the situation better by helping to diffuse it. He's had a week to cool off. A week to put his career in the proper perspective of a guy who hit 630 home runs and dazzled for years with his fielding. Not in the perspective of a 40-year-old with bad knees and a slow swing that could no longer catch up to major league pitching.

We all get old. That doesn't make us bad. And age is supposed to make us wiser. It gives us the ability to sweat the smaller stuff and focus on what truly matters in life.

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Maybe Griffey feels it's appropriate to stay silent and allow Wakamatsu to twist in the wind, both in public and in the clubhouse, because of events that transpired over his final weeks here.

If so, that's too bad.

Wakamatsu may have made mistakes this year. Actually, he's made several. But he is a good human being and Griffey knows this. And, until a few weeks ago, Wakamatsu was still universally lauded as a good manager. Maybe not Joe Torre or Bobby Cox or Tony LaRussa good. But good nonetheless.

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And good men don't let other good men go down in flames. No matter how hurt their feelings may be. They find a way to work things out. At some point, you have to stop trying to win a fight that can't be won.

At some point, you have to be a Hall of Famer and rise above it all. Legions of Griffey fans would expect nothing less.www.kinggriffeyshoesonline.com


There's a place in Mariners' organization for Ken Griffey Jr. — after he apologizes

"His leave-taking last season was like something out of a country-western song.

Ken Griffey Jr. walked out of the Mariners' clubhouse last season without saying goodbye, without even leaving an explanatory note.

He got in his luxury vehicle and drove off into the night, leaving Seattle in his rearview mirror.

It was straight out of Nashville, all broken hearts and disillusionment.at www.griffeyshoes24online.com

Griffey felt he'd been disrespected by manager Don Wakamatsu, and instead of going into Wak's office and asking for an audience, Griffey just disappeared.

That night in early June was the beginning of the end of the 2010 season. Partly because of Griffey, the clubhouse became a house divided. Partly because of Griffey, Wakamatsu lost control of his team.

It was an ugly, unsatisfying way for Griffey to leave the franchise that birthed him. It left a hole in his legacy here.

At that time, I wondered if time would heal this wound, if the bitterness that Griffey felt toward the franchise, and the disappointment many fans felt in the way he departed, could be fixed.

I wondered if we'd ever see Griffey's stadium-lighting smile again inside Safeco Field.for www.griffeysonlineusa.com

But Tuesday the Mariners announced that Griffey has been hired as a "special consultant." According to the M's news release, he will be involved in major-league operations, player development, marketing, broadcasting and community relations.

He should arrive at their Peoria training camp some time in March. And the first thing he has to do if he's serious about staying in the organization is call a news conference and explain himself.from www.griffeys2012shipping.com

Before he becomes a Mariner again, he needs to tell the fans why he left the way he left and why, now, he has decided to return. He needs to fix his reputation."

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